We hear the word ‘wellbeing’ being used more and more, but do we really understand what it is? How this relates to our athletes? I would hope that this blog provides a brief insight in to wellbeing and begin to broaden our perspective on the factors affecting athlete wellbeing at elite level.
Wellbeing is a term more commonly used within discussions around general health and happiness. Bouchard and Shepherd (1994) describe it as ‘positive physical and emotional wellbeing with a high capacity of enjoying life and challenges, and possessing adequate coping strategies in the face of difficulties.’ Robertson and Cooper (2011) state that the term wellbeing is a combination of a good level of physical, social and psychological wellbeing’.
On the most part wellbeing in sport seems more focused on psychological wellbeing however; there should be an acknowledgment of other factors that may impact over all wellbeing such as physical and social factors. In a diagram designed for the ‘Wellbeing’ Book by Robertson and Cooper called the ‘The Three Components of Wellbeing’ they attempt to demonstrate how these factors interlink. For example, ‘psychological wellbeing in the workplace’, in this instance professional sport we would expect a positive attitude, ability to handle stresses and feel a sense of purpose. The physical wellbeing at work would involve sleep and relaxation patterns, energy levels/fitness, smoking and alcohol reliance. Finally the social wellbeing aspect is having a positive and supportive network around the individual. They would argue that having these three positive avenues of wellbeing in place, individuals will have an overall positive wellbeing and be successful in their work places.
Personality is an aspect of wellbeing which isn’t always acknowledged but some believe to be partly responsible for an individual’s level of happiness. The ‘Big Five’ personality factors are widely acknowledged as being 5 crucial aspects of personality; these include openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism. Personality factors are only partly inherited, but in studies conducted by Weiss et al (2008) they found how crucial genetic factors were for levels of personality and the impact personality factors had to individual wellbeing, i.e. low levels of neuroticism/emotional stability has a positive effect on wellbeing. Although predetermined by genetics, it is not necessarily defined for life as an individual’s behaviours, learning experiences and surrounding also have an impact on personality and wellbeing factors and so always room to improve wellbeing.
Biddle et al (2002) also comment on the impact of exercise to wellbeing and how regular exercise can actually reduce the symptoms of stress, anxiety and improve physical health. The Department of Health White Paper (DOH, 1999) targets mental health as an area of health to be improved – exercise being one of the key factors to help improve psychological wellbeing. Caspersen et al (1985) define exercise as ‘body movement produced by skeletal muscles and planned structured and repetitive bodily movements’. And whilst nationwide initiatives attempt to promote active lifestyles to improve wellbeing in the population many people associate exercise with being unpleasant and hard work, therefore are reluctant to engage. During much of the research surrounding wellbeing benefits from exercise it is worth noting that many studies involve and discuss exercise as low intensity, enjoyment based exercise as opposed to the intensity level and commitment required for elite sports people. Bouchard and Shepherd (1994) also acknowledge that exercise within competitive sport is not covered within the context of psychological wellbeing but more just the wider benefits of physical health in the community. This is an interesting thought as it opens opportunity for studies to focus more on elite level sport and the impact this intensity of exercise has on athlete wellbeing.
In summary, wellbeing is better known as being an umbrella term to cover social, physical and psychological health – with these three aspects closely linked to one another. Therefore, it is important for professionals involved with elite sport to understand that physical health (ie. Injuries/illness) may affect psychological health, social factors i.e. contract negotiations, moving clubs, or relationship difficulties can have a physical and psychological impact on the athlete and so on; as professionals we must open our minds to all facets of wellbeing in order to reach an appropriate diagnosis and to provide the best possible care for the athlete.